YUV is a color model and coding system that is often used as part of color image processing systems.

For a color image or video, human perception is encoded in this color space, providing a reduced bandwidth for the representation of colors, thereby hiding transmission errors or compression defects more effectively from human perception than with direct RGB display.

Y is the luma component (brightness), U and V are the chromaticity (color) components. Apostrophes (') indicate gamma compression. "Luminance" stands for physical-linear space luminosity, while "luma" stands for non-linear perceptual luminosity.

A few of them;

ayuv, iuyv, cyuv, yunv, yvyu, y41p, y411, iy41, y211, y41t, y42t, cljr, iyu1, yuvp, v210, yvu9, yuv9, if09, yv12, yv16, i420, clpl, y800, y16, nv12, nv21, imc1, imc2, imc3, imc4, cxy1, cxy2...
For detailed information;

Color Theory- How To Use Colors ln Design - Interactive video blogs and articles | Cinema8