When we speak, we create a pressure change in the air by vibrating the air. In the hearing process, we perceive this pressure change with the membrane in our ears. Microphones are devices that capture sound waves propagating in the air and convert them into electrical energy.
Structure of Microphone
There are 3 separate parts in the structure of a microphone, and all 3 parts affect each other and form the working system of the microphone.
a) Casing: Protects the microphone diaphragm from external factors and reveals the polar diagram (polar diagram) of the audio signals coming to the microphone, relative to the diaphragm. It also acts as a directional locator before transmitting the audio signal to the diaphragm.
b) Diaphragm: Vibrated by acoustic sound waves and transmits its motion to the transducer medium.
c) Converter: Converts acoustic energy into electrical energy with the movement it receives from the diaphragm. The converter determines the type of microphone. For example, in a dynamic microphone, acoustic energy is converted into electrical energy with the help of moving coils. Since the material used in translation is the moving coil, all dynamic microphones are called “moving-coil microphone”.
Types of Microphones
- Dynamic microphones
- Capacitive microphones
- Banded (banded) microphones
- Crystal microphones
- Carbon dust microphones
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