Filter is a transparent or semi-transparent material made of various qualities of gelatin or glass, which is used to eliminate color tone differences in black and white films, to change the contrast while preserving details, to be used at different color temperatures in color films and to obtain some special effects in all films.
Each filter passes its own color, leaving out other colors. They are classified in two ways as filters mounted with metal mounting and filters mounted with carrier (holder).
Protective Filters: These are filters (U.V. and Skylight filters) used to protect the lens despite its own characteristics.
Filters Used in Black and White: These are the filters used to lower or increase the contrast. Lowering the contrast, increasing the midtones and details; raising it means reducing midtones and details. They are filters of various colors and each has a specific feature.
Polarization Filter: It is used to eliminate reflections and minimize glare. It also gives a stop saturation.
Close Up Filter: These are the zoom filters used to create a macro lens effect, usually sold as 4 pieces.
Diffuser Filter: It is a filter that reduces the sharpness of the object to be shot and softens its lines.
Gradation Filter: It is a filter used especially in landscape shots. It is used to get the sky in different colors.
Center Spot Filter: It is a filter that is used especially for portrait shots and makes the center clear and the rest blurred.
Pastel Filter: It is a filter that increases the saturation of color tones.
Star Filter: It is used to show various light sources in the photo frame more visually pleasing to the eye. It splits the light as much as the value on it and divides it into extensions.
Filter Factor: All filters absorb some of the light that passes through them. Thus, when using filters, it is necessary to slightly increase the calculated exposure time. The filter factor determines how much the increment will be.
x2 / +1 (Indicates that the exposure should be one stop more).
x4 / +2 (Indicates that the exposure should be two stops more).
x8 / +3 (Indicates exposure should be three stops more).
Example: When a filter with a filter factor of x2 / +1 is used in a composition with a light value of 125 / 8, the exposure value should be reduced to either 125 / 5.6 or 60 / 8' value.
Filter Diameters: 46mm, 49mm, 52mm, 55mm, 58mm, 62mm, 67mm, 72mm, 77mm, 82mm, 86mm, 95mm, 105mm