Simulation Medical Teaching And Learning

The implementation of simulation-based medical education and learning is one of the most significant steps in the advancement of programs. Simulation is a common concept that refers to an artificial representation of a true process of learning through experience. Medical education based on simulation is described as any educational activity using simulation to simulate clinical scenarios. While medical simulation is relatively new, it has been used in other high-risk careers like aviation for a long time.

Medical simulation enables clinical abilities to be acquired through intentional praxis rather than by an apprentice. As an alternative to actual patients, simulation instruments represent. A trainee can make mistakes without fear of hurting the patient and learn from them. There are various styles and rankings of simulators and their costs vary by the degree to which they resemble reality or 'faithfulness.' Learning based on simulation is costly. However, if correctly used, it is cost-effective. The clinical competence at the university and postgraduate levels was strengthened by medicinal simulation.

Several benefits could increase the safety of patients and reduce the cost of healthcare by improving the competence of the health service provider. This article for narrative analysis aims to emphasize the importance of simulation as a modern educational form.

Innovative medical programs have been brought about by calls for a reform in the teaching methods. The new programs emphasize rather than merely knowledge learning, the importance of proficiency in multiple clinical skills by doctors. It is widely agreed that clinical skills are an important learning result, as shown by the support of many international bodies and medical schools. The development of adequate clinical skills is essential to health education, but students often complete their training programs with theoretical knowledge but do not possess many of the essential clinical skills.

The application of theoretical expertise to the management of patients is a major challenge for medical graduates. Many academic institutions have also begun to use clinical training labs. Simulation-based learning in this area is still not well known. This paper aims to underline the significance of the undergraduate and postgraduate study of simulation as a modern teaching form.

  • Material and Methods

This is a narrative analysis of the medical simulator literature and the medical education use of simulation. MEDLINE/PubMed database literature was searched for English publications and reference lists published at the related journals. The search process was also carried out. Medical simulation, medical simulator, medical training, and clinical skills were the key search words. The title and/or abstracts are all papers thought of as important. These papers have been examined if they apply to the quest.

  • Medical skills

Medical educational programs should ensure that students have the necessary learning resources and that suitable approaches are evaluated. Competencies for clinical competencies such as skills in communication, history, career attitudes, knowledge of ethical healthcare, physical examinations, procedural competencies, clinical laboratory components, diagnostic competencies, therapeutic skills, resuscitating competencies, critical thinking, clinical reasoning, solving problems, teamwork, organizational skills, management, and information technology. Traditionally, in the apprentice-style model of 'See One, Do one, Teach One,' the acquisition and continuous development of the high-level psychomotor needed by your future doctor takes place. This kind of study is no longer appropriate as the standard of patient care, safety, and changes to healthcare systems are becoming increasingly important. 

The stress of managed care has shaped hospitalization types and frequencies and led to more acute disease patients and a shorter stay. As a result, the medical student has fewer chances to access a broad range of diseases and physical findings. Real hospital patients can rely on exposure during the training year as an ad hoc method for the acquisition and development of clinical skills since this depends on cases being available and consequently not as optimal. Many studies suggest doubts about the quality of qualifications of medical graduates in Western countries.

  • Simulation 

For several years, simulation as a training tool has been used by the aviation and aerospace industry. Simulators are now widely used in education and training in a variety of high-risk occupations and disciplines, including the military, commercial airlines, nuclear power plants, and businesses and medicine. Recently, there has been substantial progress in the inclusion of clinical training in medical students' curricula. Many cases of change include preparation for nursing skills, the use of simulators, and the setting up of clinical centers of skills.

The simulation was described as a case of artificially creating a particular set of conditions for the study or experience of what is possible in real life, or a generic term referring to artificially depicting a real-world process for achieving educational objectives through experiential learning. A simulator is described as a system that allows the operator to replicate or reflect phenomena that may occur in actual performance under test conditions. Simulation-based medical education, on the other hand, can be described as an educational activity using simulative support to simulate clinical scenarios.

Simulation techniques provide the current patient with an alternative. Without fear of distress to the patient, the trainers will make mistakes and learn from them. Experience learning is an active process in which the student creates understanding by connecting new information and new experience with previous knowledge and understanding. This is part of the concept of simulation. Experience or experience learning during simulation-based training often requires the use of clinical simulations as the foundations for learning.

The practice of scenarios can be performed on a case-by-case basis, but mainly performed in virtual environments by a team from the same or different fields, which looks as close as possible to the designated setting to immerse students in a real-life encounter. and during debriefing sessions, the practice of a scenario may be tapped for immediate feedback.

A full-scale simulation involves debriefing after a scenario. Video scenario recording is often used to facilitate discussions to ensure that all learning goals are covered. Debriefing should be focused both on the recognition of the issue and on the application of the management guidelines and on the functional level at which students' ability to apply rules and to react appropriately to challenging situations can be assessed.

The learner may develop essential skills such as interpersonal communication, teamwork, leadership, decision-making, tasks under pressure as a priority, and stress management during full-scale scenario-based training. However, simulation training should be seen as an adjuvant and not a substitute for actual patients' learning. Simulation is not designed to eliminate the need for clinical learning, and thus it is necessary during curriculum development to align simulation training with clinical practice.

  • Simulator 

In various types, simulators are graded. Table 1 provides an overview of the classification of simulators. Simulators can be graded as low faithful, medium faithful, and highly faithful simulators according to their resemblance to life. Simulators with low fidelity are always static and have no realism or scenario. They are used to teach novices the fundamental skills of the technique.

The intravenous input arm and Resusci-Anne are an example of a low-fidelity simulator. Moderate fidelity simulators offer a more realistic similarity to heartbeat, heart, and air, but without talking, and lack chest or eye movements. They can be used to introduce unique, increasingly complex competencies and to deepen understanding of them.

The cardiology simulator Harvey is an example of a moderate fidelity simulator. Simulators of high fidelity combine body or part handicrafts for the operation using machines to move manicures to generate physical signals and to provide physiological signals for monitoring. Typically, they are built to look the same. It is possible to speak, breathe, blink and answer physical and pharmacological interventions automatically or manually. The METI Human Patient Simulator (HPS) that is modeled and the instructor-controlled "Noelle" obstetric simulator are good examples of a high-faith simulator. The higher the trustworthiness, the higher the cost.

To increase learning, virtual reality can also be integrated into the simulators. The principle of advanced human-computer interactions is better defined as virtual reality. Virtual reality differs greatly in terms of its realism and user engagement with the virtual world, according to its degree of complexity. The use of haptic feedback in realistic environments is a common type of virtual reality to generate a feeling of resistance while using instruments. This technology is also used in dexterity education for endoscopy and laparoscopy. Simulations of high faithfulness and virtual reality will bridge the difference between theory and practice, immersing the student in a tangible, dynamic and complex environment.

Simulation can, however, only reproduce reality and not mimic it. For the success of simulation and the participant, the recreation of "fact" or "faithfulness" is necessary. Some simulators should be incorporated into the overall program because they can be used to facilitate autonomous and self-directed learning. However, important conditions during simulation practice are needed to make learning accurate. The expected results and preparation in a regulated environment should be predefined. Repeated practice and input during the learning process are required to be effective in learning. 

Issenberg et aI conducted an excellent systematic analysis of 10 characteristics that can contribute to efficient training for high-fidelity medical simulations.


For current curricular content, simulation can be applied. The simulated simulations are sufficiently realistic to emotionally involve students, offering a unique learning environment in which the high-faithful patient simulator speaks, breathes, blinks, and moves like a real patient. The simulation can be tailored to fit the needs of a wide range of medical expertise, such as anesthesia, emergency medicine and trauma, intensive care, laboratory medicines, pediatrics and radiology, and other specialist applications such as nurses, paramedics, and air therapists.

medical simulation level based simulation

Laboratories for simulation are very expensive. Furthermore, the experience of treating actual patients in a real hospital needs synthetic body fluids, replacement skins, bandaging, syringes, and other materials. It must be assessed against the expense of this modern technology that there is no chance of practicing. Simulation has many benefits, as it results in highly qualified doctors who make life-threatening or expensive medical mistakes less likely. 

Medical simulation techniques can help transform medical training from the old system "See One, Do One, Teach One" into a model of performance. The teaching of simulation has shown that both patients and students are at reduced risk. In undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as professional growth, it has also proved successful. Primary health care can be used to boost trust in life-saving qualities, nursing skills, communication skills, and patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and bronchial asthma. Simulation can be used for the primary health sector.

Such simulators have been used efficiently to test and measure clinical capabilities as part of task trainers, computer-based programs, augmented reality and the haptic system, simulated patients, simulated environments, and integrated simulators. In medical simulation, the main obstacle is the fact that there is no evidence in methodology to date. The majority of work published is descriptive and generalizable. It is also assumed that this learning can be transferred directly into the clinical setting. Just a few studies have found the clinical result of simulation for medical training to be directly favorable.

Finally, the promise of simulation-based medical education provides valuable opportunities for patients and students to minimize complications, enhance learner skills and trust, increase patient safety and reduce long-term healthcare costs. But rigorous research is required to determine whether simulation training improves patient outcomes effectively.